How will reducing air pollution help the production of solar energy?
The overlying hypothesis of whether photovoltaic outputs are affected by air quality i.e. PM 2.5s are explored through secondary data from various locations such as Wuhan, Lombardy & London in order to obtain accurate patterns as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown during March 2020. This gave an ideal outlook where, most significantly in London & New York City a percentage decrease of ~27% PM 2.5 occurred corresponding with +25-50% average increase in solar energy output during relevant months hinting at PM 2.5 ∝ 1/pv output. Which is then reinforced by the following data analysis of the locations Melbourne & Bateman Bay, New South Wales in relation to the Australian Bushfires lasting from December 19 to February 20, where graphs constructed using manipulated data showed a similar pattern in which a spike around the initial dates of 2020 corresponded with an average % decrease of ~15-20% in PV efficiency in both locations. This gave the hypothesis more validity to being accepted and is indeed an alternative hypothesis in conclusion since this negative relationship of both variables gave consistent readings from data manipulated and standardised without any forms of bias. Additionally, future primary data research will be conducted using a personal air quality monitor courtesy of the Leicester Education Business Company and STEM Learning which will be used as a form of follow-up and a contribution to local researchers.
Can we Measure the Impact of the Coronavirus Lockdown on Air Quality and is there a Link Between Poor Air Quality and increased Covid-19 Mortality Rates?
Subsequent to the initial devastation caused by the recent coronavirus pandemic, many countries worldwide have enforced a mandatory lockdown in a bid to contain the spread of the disease.  Whilst this has inevitably invited a myriad of far reaching negative implications, the reduction in vehicle usage along with the temporary closure of many businesses/institutes has seemingly had a positive impact on our environment and air quality. Air quality in this instance refers to the levels of ambient air pollution including pollutants such as  nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) etc. with a particular focus on course and fine particulate pollution (PM10 and PM2.5 respectively). Released as a result of road traffic emissions (especially from diesel fueled vehicles), industrial combustion plants, processes such as quarrying and natural sources such as volcanoes, particulates consist of a complex mixture of miniscule particles and liquid droplets which are highly prevalent in urban areas. The presence of particulate pollution in high levels in any given area has extensive negative ramifications as PM10 and PM2.5 are not only proven contributors to global warming and acid rain, but they have also been linked to the deterioration of respiratory health.  Due to the inhalation and deposition of the particulates into the alveoli of the lungs, they have been associated with chronic pulmonary diseases, e.g. mortality rates along with the risks of acute exacerbation in patients suffering with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are both increased when exposed to high levels of PM. In recent times, there has been progressively increasing amounts of speculation regarding the possibility of particulate matter advancing the spread of the coronavirus and potentially increasing the covid-19 related death rates. This has arisen from a pre identified link between particulate matter and various other airborne diseases such as measles, in addition to the results of recent studies carried out supporting the notion of geographical distribution of particulate matter having an impact on covid-19 mortality.
Are electric scooters the answer to improve air quality in cities?
There are 6 common types of air pollutants: particulate matter, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead. These particulates are said to be harmful to public health and can potentially cause lung cancer due to the toxic chemicals contained within them The most damaging particulates are under PM10 (diameter of under 10 micrometres) as these particulates can irritate the lungs and can cause people with previous respiratory and cardiac problems to be more likely to be admitted into hospital.
Recently a new legislation has come out which has made the e-scooter legal on roads in the UK to ease pressure on public transport amid the COVID 19 crisis however people have concerns over how safe e-scooters are for both the users and other members of the public as they can be dangerous if misused. One of these concerns is that at night the e-scooters may not be as visible which may lead to an increase in cars accidents. The scooters may be good for the environment but the factories used to produce them may produce more overall greenhouse emissions than if we just used regular bikes which leads the public to question if there is a need for e-scooters. Another problem is that they can only be used for shorter distances as traveling further would be inconvenient, also with so many other modes of transport why would people give this mode priority.
Engineering Institutions as the custodians of Engineering Professions
This paper is written in a generic form and should be of interest to all engineering institutions. It is clear from the recent discussion groups that many engineers especially the young ones do not see the benefits of becoming a member of the Institute. This is not a challenge just faced by Mechanical Engineers or Marine Engineers but also by several other institutions. So it seems the first task for engineering Institutions is to set in clear terms what is the added value to a working engineer in industry, commerce and in academia for being a member of a professional institution. In doing so the Institution should define their main reason for their existence viz., what are they for, is it for their individual members and/or organisations/companies and/or non- or Governmental entities, and if for all then in each case the institution should state the main reasons for supporting each category followed by a clear statement of value added.
A Report on Air Quality for Young People
Air quality is the condition of the air in a certain place, in an ideal world it would be completely pollution free, although in our western world and ever-increasing industrialized world clean air areas are uncommon, normally the denser the population of the given area, the worse the air quality due to resources such as transport and industry being used vastly compared to a more rural area.
Opportunities for manufacturing,utility, engineering and other organisations
The UK’s economic future depends on enabling children to be creative, inventive and technically able to support wealth-creating activities. The Imagineering Foundation is providing valuable links between education and manufacturing across the UK and provides valuable opportunities for manufacturers and engineering organisations of all kinds – including SMEs – to invest in the engineers of the future. An independent education charity, the Foundation introduces young people to the exciting world of science, engineering and technology through fun, hands-on activities and personal involvement in weekly after-school Imagineering Clubs, aimed at 9 – 13 year olds. Pupils make a series of working engineering models from kits using simple tools while learning the engineering and science principles behind these projects and their everyday applications.
Curriculum-linked after-school clubs for Key Stages 2 & 3
Pupils are introduced to the exciting world of engineering whilst having fun making a series of working engineering projects from kits using simple tools. They also learn the engineering and science principles behind these projects – which, when complete, they take home to share with their families and keep.
Become a volunteer Imagineering Club tutor
Imagineering needs your enthusiasm and a little of your time to inspire the much-needed engineers of the future through fun practical activities in our weekly after-school Imagineering Clubs. By helping to run these Clubs, you will be enabling pupils, aged 9-13 years, to have fun while they are learning about the exciting world of engineering and modern technology.
INtroducing Science in PrImary schools through Learning by DiscovEry (INSPIRE)
It is an acknowledged fact that Europe has an aging population and while Eurostat analysis shows the numbers of students graduating university with STEM qualification has remained stable across the EU in recent years (22.3% of all graduates in 2006 and 22.8% of graduates in 2012) this has not been sufficient to overcome expected shortfalls in industry in the medium to long term. The Eurostat analysis shows that in Germany for example in 2012 (arguably the leading country in terms of STEM graduates in the EU) despite nearly 30% of all graduates having a STEM qualification there was a shortage of 200,000 STEM graduates (mainly engineers) costing the economy 20 billion Euros a year. It is interesting to note that this trend is the same for the US with the added worry that the number of students who enter engineering programmes is actually projected to drop; a projection that many believe will have a negative impact on the U.S. workforce in the future (Christian D. Schunn, 2009).
Festival of Imagineers 2015 – Evaluation Report
Building on the pilot event in 2014 Imagineer’s overarching aim for the Festival of Imagineers 2015 was to create a new model arts festival, celebrating creative ingenuity and charting the journeys of creative expeditionaries from all walks of life who innovate, invent and inspire, linking art, design and engineering, performances exhibitions and workshops in different spaces for different groups. The idea was that everyone’s journey through the festival would be different, a series of immersive experiences and surprising discoveries which collectively make up a unique Imagineering adventure.